Glossary of Stormwater Terms
BMP - Best Management Practices
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations
CGP - Construction General Permit
COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand
CSO - Combined Sewer Overflow
CWA - Clean Water Act (formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972)
D.O. - Dissolved Oxygen
DMR - Discharge Monitoring Report
ELG - Effluent Limitations Guidelines
EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FR - Federal Register
MEP - Maximum Extent Practicable
MS4 - Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
MSGP - Multi Sector General Permit
NOI - Notice of Intent
NOT - Notice of Termination
NOV - Notice of Violation
NPDES - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPS - Non-point Source
O&M - Operation and Maintenance
OW - Office of Water
OWM - Office of Wastewater Management
PA - Permitting Authority
PE - Public Education
PI - Public Involvement
POTW - Publicly Owned Treatment Works
SIC - Standard Industrial Classification
SWMP - Stormwater Management Program
SWPPP (also SWP3) - Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan
TCEQ - Texas Commission on Environmental Quality
TMDL - Total Maximum Daily Load
TSS - Total Suspended Solids
UA - Urbanized Area
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Glossary of Stormwater Terms
Best Management Practices (BMPs): Activities or structural improvements that help reduce the quantity and improve the quality of stormwater runoff. BMPs include treatment requirements, operating procedures, and practices to control site runoff, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.
Category (xi) facilities: Specific facilities classified as light industry with equipment or materials exposed to stormwater.
Clean Water Act (Water Quality Act): (formerly the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972). Public law 92-500; 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.; legislation which provides statutory authority for the NPDES program. Also know as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.
Conveyance: The process of water moving from one place to another.
Discharge: The volume of water (and suspended sediment if surface water) that passes a given location within a given period of time.
Erosion: When land is diminished or worn away due to wind, water, or glacial ice. Often the eroded debris (silt or sediment) becomes a pollutant via stormwater runoff. Erosion occurs naturally but can be intensified by land clearing activities such as farming, development, road-building, and timber harvesting.
Excavation: The process of removing earth, stone, or other materials from land.
General Permit: A permit issued under the NPDES program to cover a certain class or category of stormwater discharges. These permits reduce the administrative burden of permitting stormwater discharges.
Grading: The cutting and/or filling of the land surface to a desired slope or elevation.
Illicit Connection: Any discharge to a municipal separate storm sewer that is not composed entirely of stormwater and is not authorized by an NPDES permit, with some exceptions (e.g., discharges due to fire fighting activities).
Industrial Activity: Any activity which is directly related to manufacturing, processing or raw materials storage areas at an industrial plant.
Large Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4): An MS4 located in an incorporated place or county with a population of 250,000 or more, as determined by the latest U.S. Census. Also refered to as Phase I regulated entities.
Light Manufacturing Facilities: Described under Category (xi) of the definition of "stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity." [40 CFR 122.26(b)(14)(xi)] Under the Phase I NPDES Stormwater Program, these facilities were eligible for exemption from stormwater permitting requirements if certain areas and activities were not exposed to stormwater. As a result of the Phase II Final Rule, these facilities must now certify to a condition of no exposure.
Maximum Extent Practicable (MEP): A standard for water quality that applies to all MS4 operators regulated under the NPDES Stormwater Program. Since no precise definition of MEP exists, it allows for maximum flexibility on the part of MS4 operators as they develop and implement their programs.
Medium Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4): MS4 located in an incorporated place or county with a population of 100,000 or more but less than 250,000, as determined by the latest U.S. Census. Also refered to as Phase I regulated entities.
Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4): A publically-owned conveyance or system of conveyances that discharges to waters of the U.S. and is designed or used for collecting or conveying stormwater, is not a combined sewer, and is not part of a publicly-owned treatment works (POTW).
Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP): An NPDES permit that regulates stormwater discharges from eleven categories of industrial activities. The permitting program has been administered by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) since 2000 under the TPDES.
No exposure: All industrial materials or activities are protected by a storm resistant shelter to prevent exposure to rain, snow, snowmelt, and/or runoff. Industrial materials or activities include, but are not limited to, material handling equipment or activities, industrial machinery, raw materials, intermediate products, by-products, final products, or waste products. Material handling activities include the storage, loading and unloading, transportation, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate product, final product or waste product.
Non-authorized States: any State that does not have the authority to regulate the NPDES Stormwater Program.
Non-point Source (NPS) Pollutants: Pollutants from many diffuse sources. NPS pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even our underground sources of drinking water.
Notice of Intent (NOI): An application to notify the permitting authority of a facility's intention to be covered by a general permit; exempts a facility from having to submit an individual or group application.
NPDES: "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System" the name of the surface water quality program authorized by Congress as part of the 1987 Clean Water Act. This is EPA's program to control the discharge of pollutants to waters of the United States (see 40 CFR 122.2).
O&M Expenditures: The operating and maintenance costs associated with the continual workings of a project.
Outfall: The point where wastewater or drainage discharges from a sewer pipe, ditch, or other conveyance to a receiving body of water.
Permitting Authority (PA): The NPDES-authorized state agency or EPA regional office that administers the NPDES Stormwater Program. PAs issue permits, provide compliance assistance, and inspect and enforce the program.
Physically interconnected MS4: This means that one MS4 is connected to a second MS4 in such a way that it allows for direct discharges into the second system.
Point Source Pollutant: Pollutants from a single, identifiable source such as a factory or refinery.
Pollutant Loading: The total quantity of pollutants in stormwater runoff.
Qualifying local program: A local, State or Tribal municipal stormwater management program that imposes, at a minimum, the relevant requirements of one or more of the minimum control measures includes in 122.34(b).
Regulated MS4: Any MS4 covered by the NPDES Stormwater Program (regulated small, medium, or large MS4s).
Retrofit: The modification of stormwater management systems through the construction and/or enhancement of wet ponds, wetland plantings, or other BMPs designed to improve water quality.
Runoff: Drainage or flood discharge that leaves an area as surface flow or as pipeline flow. Has reached a channel or pipeline by either surface or sub-surface routes.
Sanitary Sewer: A system of underground pipes that carries sanitary waste or process wastewater to a treatment plant.
Sediment: Soil, sand, and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. Sediment can destroy fish-nesting areas, clog animal habitats, and cloud waters so that sunlight does not reach aquatic plants.
Sheet flow: The portion of precipitation that moves initially as overland flow in very shallow depths before eventually reaching a stream channel.
Site Plan: A graphical representation of a layout of buildings and facilities on a parcel of land.
Site Runoff: Any drainage or flood discharge that is released from a specified area.
Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4): Any MS4 that is not regulated under Phase I of the NPDES Stormwater Program and Federally-owned MS4s. Also known as Phase II regulated entities. A Phase II regulated Small MS4 is either located in an "urbanized area" or is designated as such by the Permitting Authority, which is the TCEQ in Texas.
Stakeholder: An entity that holds a special interest in an issue or program -- such as the stormwater program -- since it is or may be affected by it.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code: A four digit number which is used to identify various types of industries.
Storm Drain: A slotted opening leading to an underground pipe or an open ditch for carrying surface runoff.
Stormwater: Precipitation that accumulates in natural and/or constructed storage and stormwater systems during and immediately following a storm event.
Stormwater Management: Functions associated with planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, financing, and regulating the facilities (both constructed and natural) that collect, store, control, and/or convey stormwater.
Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP or SWP3): A plan to describe a process whereby a facility thoroughly evaluates potential pollutant sources at a site and selects and implements appropriate measures designed to prevent or control the discharge of pollutants in stormwater runoff.
Surface Water: Water that remains on the surface of the ground, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, streams, wetlands, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc.
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL): The maximum amount of pollutants which can released into a water body without adversely affecting the water quality.
Tool Box: A term to describe the activities and materials that EPA plans to perform/produce to facilitate implementation of the stormwater program in an effective and cost-efficient manner. The eight components include: 1)fact sheets; 2) guidance documents; 3) menu of BMPs; 4) compliance assistance; 5) information clearing house; 6) training and outreach efforts; 7) technical research; and 8) support for demonstration projects.
Urbanized Area (UA): A Bureau of the Census determination of a central place (or places) and the adjacent densely settled surrounding territory that together have a minimum residential population of 50,000 people and a minimum average density of 1,000 people/square mile. This is a simplified definition of a UA, the full definition is very complex.
Urban Runoff: stormwater from urban areas, which tends to contain heavy concentrations of pollutants from urban activities.
Watershed: That geographical area which drains to a specified point on a water course, usually a confluence of streams or rivers (also known as drainage area, catchment, or river basin).
Wet Weather Flows: Water entering storm drains during rainstorms/wet weather events.
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