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Parking

Parking Management Workshop

“How to Develop a Parking Management Strategy” -
December 2, 2014

  • Registration starts at 8:00 am.  Light refreshments will be provided.
  • Workshop - 8:30 am to 12:00 pm. 

NCTCOG offices: Transportation Council Room
616 Six Flags Drive, Arlington, TX  76011

Join us for a regional workshop to hear from national experts on various topics related to policies, practices, management strategies and other hot topics.  Also, come find out how North Texas communities are addressing the challenge of sustainable parking in a growing region.  Panels of local public sector professionals and developers will speak on topics such as:

 

  •  Effective strategies to finding the optimal parking supply
  •  Experiences with parking strategy implementation
  •  Designing sustainable parking facilities
  •  Implementing parking management technologies

 

Save the Date Flyer

Agenda [Coming soon]

Presentations [Coming soon]

For RSVP and more information contact Travis Liska at liska@nctcog.org or (817)-704-2512.

 

Automobiles have become an essential part of everyone’s lives. This is why parking supply is also a very important part of every aspect from where we live to where we do business.  Ample parking can give peace of mind that space will be available when you arrive to your destination; however, too much parking can hinder economic development and be perceived as an unsafe environment to walk.  A large amount of land, relative to square feet of developed property is dedicated solely to parking in the DFW region.

Parking is often found on prime real estate within the central cities and can limit business expansion, redevelopment, or new development since limiting those spaces may not be allowed per City regulations.  Parking placement is also an issue.  Parking located in a business frontage can provide a barrier and unsafe condition for people to walk from the sidewalk to the store front.  The table below provides more parking problems and possible solutions. Parking is a good and necessary resource for vehicles but the quantity and placement when designed for only the car can create conflicts for alternative modes and may not take into account possible reductions that could occur if more modes where accessible.

Parking

“Cities have needed parking spaces ever since the two-wheeled chariot was invented in Sumeria about 5,000 years ago, but parking did not become a pandemic problem until the 20th century when cars appeared in great numbers.”

 

Donald Shoup, The Practice of Parking Requirements

Comparing Perspectives of Parking Problems


Perspective

Problem Definition

Potential Solutions

Supply-oriented

Inadequate supply, excessive price.

Have governments, businesses and residents supply more parking. Increase minimum parking standards.

Information-oriented

Inadequate user information.

Create signs, brochures and other information resources indicating parking availability and price.

Choice-oriented

Inadequate consumer options.

Increase the range of parking convenience and price levels available to consumers.

Pricing Convenience

Pricing is inconvenient.

Develop more convenient payment and time options.

Efficiency-oriented

Inefficient use of existing parking capacity.

Share parking facilities. Implement transport and parking demand management. Price parking. Provide shuttle services to parking facilities.

Demand-oriented

Excessive automobile use.

Improve access and transport choice. Transport and parking demand management programs.

Spillover impacts

Inadequate parking causes problems in other locations.

Use management strategies to respond to spillover problems. Improve enforcement of parking regulations.

External impacts

Parking facilities impose external costs.

Reduce parking minimums. Price parking. Improve parking facility design. Implement TDM programs. 

Source: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Parking Evaluation
     

A small sample of cities in Dallas-Fort Worth that provide parking solutions:

The City of Fort Worth is running a pilot parking project utilizing meters with ultra-low-power sensors that indicate parking availability through a smart phone app.  This reduces the need to drive around looking for a parking spot.

The City of Greenville provides for a limit of 50 percent reduction in parking requirements for mixed-use projects or nearby uses with distinctly different peak parking demand characteristics or hours of operation.   

One of the issues that causes parking demand and supply problems is the perception that parking is free because you park and don’t pay directly for the space. Parking costs are often recuperated through the person leasing the space which increases the cost of business and may be passed down to the merchandise being sold so the end user pays for parking indirectly whether they need the parking space or not.  Parking can cost anywhere from $5,000 to $32,000 per space which is dependent on land value, structure, and amenities.  Surface parking consists of paved land where the vehicle can park.  Structured parking, sometimes referred to as garage parking, consists of various levels that allow parking in each level.

Parking Cost Estimates as of 2007

Type

Construction Costs
per Space

Comments

Surface parking

$5,000 - $10,000

Range includes from low-end asphalt to details such as cobbles and brick pavers

Parking under townhome

$14,000

 

Multi-family (Texas Donut) or
mid-rise building

$17,000 - $20,000

Open undecorated parking decks

Multi-level with special features

$28,000 - $32,000

If the parking is to be incorporated into the urban fabric of a community, the cost of a special feature like retail wrap or an enhanced facade typically adds additional cost of a parking space

Source: TCRP Report 128  Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking and Travel

There are solutions to the parking problems such as Parking Management.  Parking management refers to the policy and program strategies that utilize existing parking facilities more efficiently.  Here are some of the most common parking management strategies:

Shared Parking – this results in one or more businesses sharing the parking facility mainly because their business hours are different.  For example, an office may not need to utilize parking spaces in the evenings or weekends, during which time an establishment such as a restaurant could utilize the spaces in these off-peak periods.

Park-and-Ride – this can result in parking being placed in more remote areas and users can be shuttled to the destination.  This helps alleviate parking supply in an area such as a downtown where land can be scarcer.

Unbundle Parking – this can result in parking being sold or rented separately than a building’s purchase or lease price.  The building’s occupants are then able to purchase or lease the actual parking spaces that are needed.  Cities and developers/builders would work together on the appropriate reduction allocation.   

The table below provides many more Parking Management Strategies and their associated impacts.

Parking Management Strategies

Strategy

Description

Typical
Reduction

Traffic
Reduction

Shared Parking

Have each parking space serve multiple users and destinations.

10 - 30%

 

Parking Regulations

Regulations that favor higher-value uses such as service vehicles, deliveries, customers, quick errands, and people with special needs.

10 - 30%

 

More Accurate and Flexible Standards

Adjust parking standards to more accurately reflect demand in a particular situation.

10 - 30%

 

Parking Maximums 

Establish maximum parking standards.

10 - 30%

 

Remote Parking

Provide off-site or urban fringe parking facilities.

10 - 30%

 

Smart Growth

Encourage more compact, mixed, multi-modal development to allow more parking sharing and use of alternative modes.

10 - 30%

X

Walking and Cycling
Improvements

Improve walking and cycling conditions to expand the range of destinations serviced by a parking facility.

5 - 15%

X

Increase Capacity of
Existing Facilities

Increase parking supply by using otherwise wasted space, smaller stalls, car stackers and valet parking.

5 - 15%

 

Mobility Management

Encourage more efficient travel patterns, including changes in mode, timing, destination and vehicle trip frequency.

10 - 30%

X

Parking Pricing

Charge motorists directly and efficiently for using parking facilities.

10 - 30%

X

Improve Pricing
Methods

Use better charging techniques to make pricing more convenient and cost effective.

NA

X

Financial Incentives

Provide financial incentives to shift mode.

10 - 30%

X

Unbundle Parking

Rent or sell parking facilities separately from building space.

10 - 30%

X

Parking Tax Reform

Tax parking facilities and their use.

5 - 15%

X

Bicycle Facilities

Provide bicycle storage and changing facilities.

5 - 15%

X

Improve User Information
and Marketing

Provide convenient and accurate information on parking availability and price, using maps, signs, brochures and electronic communication.

5 - 15%

X

Improve Enforcement

Ensure that parking regulation enforcement is efficient, considerate and fair.

NA

 

Transportation Management
Associations

Establish member-controlled organizations that provide transport and parking management services in a particular area.

NA

X

Overflow Parking Plans

Establish plans to deal with periods of peak parking demand.

NA

 

Address Spillover
Problems

Use management, enforcement and pricing to address spillover problems, such as undesirable use of nearby parking facilities.

NA

 

Parking Facility Design
and Operation

Improved parking facility design and operations to help solve problems and achieve parking management objectives.

NA

 

Source: Parking Management Strategies, Evaluation and Planning, Todd Litman 2006

Links and Resources

The Victoria Transport Policy Institute contains a good source of compiled lists of data and studies relating to Parking topics.  Please visit http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm73.htm#_Toc18599156 

FWTAravel Demand Management (TDM) program contains parking information regarding park-and-ride facilities.  Please visit http://www.nctcog.org/trans/cmp/tdm/PNRLocations.asp

Parking cash-out programs allow employers who provide free parking to offer a cash allowance to employees who choose not to use a parking space and
instead find an alternative means to commute to the worksite.  To learn more about the Parking Cash-Out program, please visit http://www.nctcog.org/trans/air/programs/parking/index.asp

The Metropolitan Transportation Commission in California has a parking policy to support smart growth and developed a parking model. 
For more information please visit http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/smart_growth/parking/parking_seminar.htm

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